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The Federation of St. Christopher (St. Kitts) and Nevis encompasses an area of 269 km² in total. At 176 km², St. Kitts is the larger of the two islands located at 17o 15’ North Latitude and 62o 35’ West Longitude. Nevis is approximately 93 km² in size. The topography of St. Kitts is dominated by a mountain range in the NW of the island, consisting primarily of 3 volcanic peaks including the island’s highest peak of Mount Liamuiga which stands at 1,156m. Nevis Peak is the highest point on Nevis standing at 985m. Both islands are volcanic in origin. St. Kitts is dominated by andesite and dacite rocks.

Rainfall ranges from 1600mm per annum in the central mountain range of St. Kitts to 864mm in the very dry coastal areas along the SE Peninsula. Rainfall in Nevis ranges from 1170mm to 1310mm. The country is considered water scarce, a situation which is exacerbated by the country’s growing tourism sector, known for high water consumption. The main water source is ground water and recent attempts have been made towards the protection of important aquifers.

Remnant mangrove stands are concentrated within the South East Peninsula of St. Kitts. The main seagrass beds are also found in this area between St. Kitts and Nevis commonly referred to as the Narrows. The typical seagrass species are found in St. Kitts and Nevis waters including Syringodium filiforme and Thalassia testudinum.
Reefs occupy around 160km² in the waters of off St. Kitts and Nevis but are under threat from land based sources of pollution especially sedimentation. Reefs are best developed around the South East Peninsula and the west coast of St. Kitts (Reefs at Risk 2004).
Like most of the Caribbean Islands, the fishing industry is artisanal, comprised of around 350 persons in St. Kitts and 300 in Nevis. In St. Kitts less than 20% of these are full time. Coastal pelagics account for over 40% of the landings, but there is also significant demersal and reef fishery effort. Conch is another significant fisheries item. Overall, 460 species of marine fish are noted in St. Kitts and Nevis (ACP II 2012 and Reefs at Risk 2004). The country’s main mangroves wetland and reef areas are showcased in the figures below.

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